Fabrication of a Mattress
It is likely that the first mention of a mattress was in prehistoric petroglyphs. Humans were able to sleep more soundly and comfortably on a simple nest made of leaves, straw, and animal skins than they would have on any other surface.
These early mattresses could be disassembled and reassembled as people moved around, but as more people gave up nomadic life in favor of farming, more permanent furniture, such as the bed frame or bed fixture, was created.
The evolution of the mattress and bed frame went hand in hand in the beginning. The bed frame was often the largest and most important piece of furniture in ancient societies. A common household fixture, it was used for everything from eating to lounging to sleeping.
Bed frames have become increasingly ornate and elaborate over the years, with the wealthy opting for designs that incorporate precious metals like gold and precious stones like gems set in intricate designs. Yet, despite these advancements, mattresses continued to be grossly unrefined and uncomfortable.
A farmer's mattress might consist of a sack stuffed with straw, corncobs, crop debris, or other gathered vegetation. A wealthy person's mattress would have had more layers of cotton, horse hair, and other textile remnants and much less farm debris.
These rudimentary mattresses weren't just unpleasant to sleep on; they were also notoriously dirty and full of bugs. Mattresses in the past were the same for the wealthy and the poor; they were both made from scraps and thrown away.
Mattresses weren't much different from the debris-filled bag used in medieval and even prehistoric times until the late 1800s. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, when mattresses were first mass-produced, a sudden uptick in sophistication occurred in the design of these beds.
Materials such as cotton or other plant-based ingredients, horse hair, and more refined textiles like linens or other fluffy fibers were skillfully hand-placed into the construction of a more vertically integrated design within the ticking, or sack. It was common practice for high-end mattress manufacturers to purchase remnants from tailoring shops in order to create one-of-a-kind mattresses for wealthy clients.
Mattresses were rethought in 1857 when German inventor Heinrich Westphal developed a continuous framework of steel coils, and by 1871, the first mass-produced innerspring mattress had been introduced to consumers.
Manufacturers were able to create a uniform product with a firm, resilient feel by sandwiching a set of springs between two layers of upholstery. However, these "innerspring" mattresses were initially quite expensive to produce. Luxury hotels and luxury cruise ships were the only places that could afford them.
One Zalmon Simmons, Jr., who had served in the war, came home to find his country in ruins. , a serial entrepreneur whose portfolio included a line of bed frames, set out to soften the initial innerspring mattress's infamously hard texture. It was unheard of for any kind of home furnishing at the time, but he went ahead and produced a line of mattresses that retailed for $40.
Simmons' coil systems were woven coil mats for stabilization; they were typically 8 inches tall, had a wire wrapped exterior perimeter that was perfectly rectangular, and came in a variety of sizes. The steel was originally woven by hand, but with the advent of twisting machinery, an entire unit could be machine made very quickly. This, combined with an assembly method for placing the layers around the woven coil mat, made mattress manufacturing profitable. It also meant that middle-class families and those on fixed incomes could afford innerspring mattresses.
Zalmon Simmons's son Grant promoted the mattress line to such success that it eventually made its way into the White House and on board the first Air Force One. This was made possible by the company's development and refinement of designs to include tufting and padding, which made their products increasingly comfortable and affordable. In spite of facing many challenges across several generations, the family business continues to thrive as a worldwide leader in the mattress industry.
To begin, contemporary coil-type mattresses underwent a dramatic shift due to several improved innerspring designs. Many companies, including another industry trailblazer, the Leggett & Platt Company, abandoned the traditional one-piece woven coil "rack" style in favor of more modern designs, such as pocket-style coils that are individually placed. who supplies many commercial mattress manufacturers with coil components
The innerspring unit is the most important part of a coil-type mattress. It consists of a set of wire coils that are caged together and connected to one another in a specific order. First, a layer known as an insulator is fastened directly to the coil units with either wires or clips; its job is to prevent the subsequent layers, known as cushioning layers, from leaving an imprint on and molding to the coils below them.
The insulator is consistent, but the padding can have anywhere from two to eight layers and a thickness of 1/4 inch to two inches ( 2.63-5.9 inches (.63-.2 centimeters) thick The flanges come next; these are the connecting panels that hold the mattress' quilted cover in place using big hogs rings. Mattresses have a border or edge tape that connects the top, bottom, and sides.
Polyurethane foam, memory foam, latex, and plant-based foams made from soy and other green and eco-friendly ingredients are all viable options for the comfort layers.
There are many types of springs available to meet a variety of requirements, but the four most common coil units are the Bonnell, offset, continuous, and pocketed coil. Hourglass-shaped and knotted at both ends, Bonnell springs are a staple in many homes. The offset design resembles an hourglass, but its top and bottom are flattened to create a hinge between the coils.
One very long steel wire is coiled into S-shaped units to form the innerspring's continuous coil. Last but not least, in the pocketed coil unit, each coil is enclosed in a fabric casing that also connects it to adjacent coil-casing units. When it comes to coil mattress inserts, the pocketed coil system is currently the market leader.
The number of coils in a mattress is typically between 250 and 1,000, with fewer coils typically requiring a heavier gauge of wire. As much as 2,000 feet (610 meters) of steel wire may be needed to make an innerspring unit. Joining the separate coils can be done in various ways. One common technique involves using helicals, which are corkscrew-shaped wires that run along the top and bottom of the springs and lace the coils together. In some cases, border wires are used to secure the unit's borders.
Foundation pieces (often called boxsprings) that lie directly beneath the mattress and rest on a metal or wooden bed frame are also commonly produced by most manufacturers. Spiked coil foundations, in which the springs are thinner at the base and wider at the top, are very popular for box springs. The most common method of boxspring support is a spring system, but torsion bars are also sometimes employed. In contrast, some bed frames serve as mattresses and feature neither springs nor foam but rather a solid wooden structure.
Sources of Energy
These days, you can get a mattress made from a wide variety of materials, both natural and synthetic. We use wire to create the innerspring, helical, and boxspring parts, with the boxspring wire typically being thicker than the innerspring wire. The insulator is made out of a semi-rigid netting or wire mesh, and the padding can be made from a variety of materials like natural fiber, polyurethane foam, or polyester. Fabric is used for the flanges, while metal is used for the hogs' ear rings. Quilted foam or fiber is sandwiched between a sturdy fabric cover and the top, bottom, and side panels.
Workers manually apply the insulator layer after receiving the finished innerspring unit. The final product's comfort and feel are then established by adding the padding layers. Different types of foam, arranged in different orders, and of varying thicknesses and densities can all contribute to a custom "recipe" for the mattress in question. The firmness or softness of a mattress may be tailored to a variety of uses.
The decorative ticking, encasing, or outer covering for the top, bottom, and sides is created on a massive quilting machine, which uses a computer to coordinate a large number of needles to sew the cover to a layer of backing material.
Both wooden slats and metal coils, like those found in the mattress, can be used to make the boxspring that sits below the bed. Even if the boxspring is not upholstered, it will always have a fabric cover.
During the '80s, a new type of mattress entered the market and quickly became an economic success. The Tempur-Pedic Company was largely responsible for popularizing modern designs for mattresses made entirely of foam, rather than springs or coils.
A NASA research project led to the creation of the Tempur-Pedic foam mattress.
In the 1970s, NASA created the first memory foam. The goal was to give pilots and passengers more comfort and safety in the event of a crash. In addition to the well-known memory foam mattresses and pillows, it has many other commercial uses.
Memory foam is ubiquitous at this point, found in everything from beds and pillows to bicycle seats and mouse pad wrist rests. From game-changing medical applications like burn unit bedding to novel but ultimately unsatisfying product designs, this new material has been put to extensive use since its introduction to the United States in 1991. In fact, hundreds of mattress styles and options use materials that are close imitations of the original but manufactured by different companies. Nevertheless, what is it, who invented it, and how does it operate?
Even though it was only invented not too long ago in the United S Memory foam, in one form or another, has been around since the middle of the twentieth century; however, the first work on the polyurethane polymers that are a part of the memory foam recipe and which give it the unique melting sensation that it offers was actually begun in 1937 by Otto Bayer and his colleagues.
In 1965, nurses at Lankenau Hospital in Wynnewood, Pennsylvania, tested polyurethane pads for use as bedding material and found that they prevented "decubitus ulcers," also called pressure ulcers or bed sores, sustained by patients who spend long periods of time in bed. and discovered that they are bacterium-proof and safe for allergy sufferers to use To ensure astronauts' comfort and safety during the intense g-forces of launch, NASA began developing new cushioning materials in the 1960s.
Comparison of Memory Foam and Most "bed in a box" mattresses are made of polyurethane foam, which is similar to what is found in traditional mattresses.
Polyurethane foam, from which memory foam is derived, has been produced since the mid-1950s by combining polyols with either water or halocarbons or hydrocarbons. The versatility of polyurethane lies in the chemicals it can take and the processes it can undergo, allowing it to take the form of anything from spray liner to car parts to, in this case, a globally renowned, extraordinarily comfortable mattress.
Currently, polyol, di-isocyanate, and water are the three main ingredients in the manufacturing process of memory foam. The foam develops a frothy, bread-like texture as it rises, and an open cell structure that aids in its unique, albeit sluggish, resilience when subjected to pressure. By injecting bubbled gases into the starting solution, a matrix is created that facilitates gas diffusion from cell to cell. By adjusting the concentration of the chemicals and the amount of gas introduced, the bubbles can be made of varying sizes. More air can circulate through a material with a more open cell structure, and the material will be more pliable as a result.
IFD (Indention Force Deflection), also known as ILD (Indentation Load Deflection), is a unit of measurement for the firmness of memory foam and polyurethane foams. This measurement is the force in pounds required to make a 25% indentation in a 4 inch square of foam.
The density of the foam, which determines how firm or soft it is, is also an important factor in determining its "softness." Foam densities range from 1 to 7 pounds, but 4 pounds is considered minimum for use in mattress construction and 5 pounds is ideal. Especially at lower temperatures, a foam with a high density but low ILD may still feel firm when compressed. The density, along with the IFD/ILD and the resilience, will determine the foam's softness, firmness, and lifespan.
Lower density foam will conform to pressure more easily than higher density foam (typically 5 lb or higher) forms to the shape of the body when heated Memory foam did not enter mass production until NASA made the technology available in the 1980s. In 1991, Fagerdala World Foams made the first "Tempur-Pedic Swedish Mattress," a full-size version of the innovative mattress. ”
There are now many manufacturers of viscoelastic memory foam all over the world, giving shoppers a wider selection and lower prices. There is a greater possibility of buying low-quality foams that will eventually degrade. Not all memory foam is made equally; in order to lower production costs, many overseas factories substitute cheaper, lower-quality, and potentially toxic "filler" ingredients.
tendencies in the mattress market
Mattress sales have been fairly stable recently. About 16 million mattresses were sold in the USA in 1990. About $4 billion was made in sales between mattresses and frames and foundations. The mattress industry is dominated by a small number of large companies. Most of the roughly 825 mattress factories in the US are still run by their original families' third or fourth generations of management.
By 2020, the vast majority of mattresses will have been produced in standardized sizes. The industry pushed for this standardization to eliminate potential dimensional discrepancies between bed and mattress manufacturers. Beds range in size from 39 to 78 inches in width and length, with the twin measuring 75 by 39 inches, the double measuring 54 by 74 inches, the queen measuring 60 by 80 inches, and the king measuring 78 by 80 inches.
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