Fabrication of a Mattress
It is likely that the first mention of a mattress was in prehistoric petroglyphs. Humans were able to sleep more soundly and comfortably on a simple nest made of leaves, straw, and animal skins than they would have on any other surface.
As more people began to abandon a nomadic, hunting existence in favor of a settled, agricultural one, primitive furnishings, including the bed frame or bed fixture, emerged. These mattresses could be left in place and reassembled as people traveled from one location to another.
The evolution of the mattress and bed frame went hand in hand in the beginning. The bed frame was often the largest and most important piece of furniture in ancient societies. A common household fixture, it was used for everything from eating to lounging to sleeping.
Bed frames became increasingly ornate and elaborate over the centuries, especially for those with wealthy means, who frequently had them adorned with gold or inlaid precious stones. Mattresses, however, remained shockingly primitive and painful to sit or lie on.
A farmer's mattress might consist of a sack full of gathered vegetation, such as straw, corncobs, crop debris, or other discarded plant matter. A wealthy person's mattress would have had more layers of cotton, horse hair, and other textile remnants and much less farm debris.
These rudimentary mattresses weren't just unpleasant to sleep on; they were also notoriously dirty and full of bugs. Mattresses in the past were the same for the wealthy and the poor; they were both made from scraps and thrown away.
Mattresses weren't much different from the debris-filled bag used in medieval and even prehistoric times until the late 1800s. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, when mattresses were first mass-produced, a sudden uptick in sophistication occurred in the design of these beds.
Materials such as cotton or other plant-based ingredients, horse hair, and more refined textiles like linens or other fluffy fibers were skillfully hand-placed into the construction of a more vertically integrated design within the ticking, or sack. It was common practice for high-end mattress manufacturers to purchase remnants from tailoring shops in order to create one-of-a-kind mattresses for wealthy clients.
In 1871, the first mass-produced innerspring mattress was introduced to the market, but it wasn't until 1857 that the concept of a mattress was fundamentally altered thanks to German inventor Heinrich Westphal's invention of a continuous framework of steel coils.
Mattresses with a uniform feel and a firm, resilient construction were made possible by inserting a set of springs between the fabric layers. These mattresses were initially quite pricey to produce, however. Luxury hotels and luxury cruise ships were the only places that could afford them.
After WWI, a guy named Zalmon Simmons, Jr. , a serial entrepreneur whose portfolio included a line of bed frames, set out to soften the initial innerspring mattress's infamously hard texture. It was unheard of for any kind of home furnishing at the time, but he went ahead and produced a line of mattresses that retailed for $40.
Simmons' coil systems, which were stabilizing woven coil mats, were typically 8 inches tall, had a wire wrapped exterior perimeter that was perfectly rectangular, and came in a variety of sizes. The steel was originally woven by hand, but with the advent of twisting machinery, an entire unit could be machine made very quickly. This, combined with an assembly method for placing the layers around the woven coil mat, made mattress manufacturing profitable. It also meant that middle-class families and those on fixed incomes could afford innerspring mattresses.
Zalmon Simmons's son Grant promoted the mattress line to such success that it eventually made its way into the White House and on board the first Air Force One. This was made possible by the company's development and refinement of designs to include tufting and padding, which made their products increasingly comfortable and affordable. In spite of facing many challenges across several generations, the family business continues to thrive as a worldwide leader in the mattress industry.
The first major shift occurred in contemporary coil-type mattresses as a result of several improved innerspring designs. Many companies, including another industry trailblazer, the Leggett & Platt Company, abandoned the traditional one-piece woven coil "rack" style in favor of more modern designs, such as pocket-style coils that are individually placed. who supplies many commercial mattress manufacturers with coil components
The innerspring unit is the most important part of a coil-type mattress. It consists of a set of wire coils that are caged together and connected to one another in a specific order. First, a layer known as an insulator is fastened directly to the coil units with either wires or clips; its job is to prevent the subsequent layers, known as cushioning layers, from leaving an imprint on and molding to the coils below them.
The insulator is consistent, but the padding can have anywhere from two to eight layers and a thickness of 1/4 inch to two inches ( 2.63-5.9 inches (.63-.2 centimeters) thick The next part to the mattress's outermost cover is the flanges, which are connecting panels fastened to the quilted cover with large, round staples called hogs rings. Border or edge tape is used to join the top, bottom, and side panels of the mattress.
Polyurethane foam, memory foam, latex, and plant-based foams made from soy and other green and eco-friendly ingredients are all viable options for the comfort layers.
There are many types of springs available to meet a variety of requirements, but the four most common coil units are the Bonnell, offset, continuous, and pocketed coil. Hourglass-shaped and knotted at both ends, Bonnell springs are a staple in many homes. The offset design resembles an hourglass, but its top and bottom are flattened to create a hinge between the coils.
One very long steel wire is coiled into S-shaped units to form the innerspring's continuous coil. Last but not least, in the pocketed coil unit, each coil is enclosed in a fabric casing that also connects it to adjacent coil-casing units. When it comes to coil mattress inserts, the pocketed coil system is currently the market leader.
A standard mattress has anywhere from two hundred fifty to one thousand coils, with the higher end requiring a heavier wire gauge. As much as 2,000 feet (610 meters) of steel wire may be needed to make an innerspring unit. Joining the separate coils can be done in various ways. Commonly, helicals are used, which are corkscrew-shaped wires that are laced through the springs from end to end. In some cases, border wires are used to secure the unit's borders.
Foundation pieces (often called boxsprings) that lie directly beneath the mattress and rest on a metal or wooden bed frame are also commonly produced by most manufacturers. Spiked coil foundations, in which the springs are thinner at the base and wider at the top, are very popular for box springs. The most common method of boxspring support is a spring system, but torsion bars are also sometimes employed. In contrast, some bed frames serve as mattresses and feature neither springs nor foam but rather a solid wooden structure.
These days, you can get a mattress made from a wide variety of materials, both natural and synthetic. We use wire to create the innerspring, helical, and boxspring parts, with the boxspring wire typically being thicker than the innerspring wire. Semi-rigid netting or wire mesh makes up the insulator, and natural fiber, polyurethane foam, and polyester can all be used in the cushioning layers. Fabric is used for the flanges, while metal is used for the hogs' ear rings. A foam or fiber backing is quilted to a sturdy fabric cover on the top, bottom, and sides; the binding finishes off the construction.
Workers manually apply the insulator layer after receiving the finished innerspring unit. The final product's comfort and feel are then established by adding the padding layers. Different types of foam, arranged in different orders, and of varying thicknesses and densities can all contribute to a custom "recipe" for the mattress in question. The firmness or softness of a mattress may be tailored to a variety of uses.
The decorative ticking, encasement, or outer covering for the top, bottom, and sides is made on a massive quilting machine with a control panel that houses a large number of needles.
Both wooden slats and metal coils, like those in the mattress, can be used to make the boxspring that sits below it. Even if the boxspring is not upholstered, it will always have a fabric covering.
During the '80s, a new type of mattress entered the market and quickly became an economic success. The Tempur-Pedic Company was largely responsible for popularizing modern designs for mattresses made entirely of foam, rather than springs or coils.
Mattresses made of memory foam: Tempur-Pedic was created as a NASA experiment.
In the 1970s, NASA created the first memory foam. The goal was to give pilots and passengers more comfort and safety in the event of a crash. In addition to the well-known memory foam mattresses and pillows, it has many other commercial uses.
Memory foam is ubiquitous at this point, found in everything from beds and pillows to bicycle seats and mouse pad wrist rests. From game-changing medical applications like burn unit bedding to novel but ultimately unsatisfying product designs, this new material has been put to extensive use since its introduction to the United States in 1991. In fact, hundreds of mattress styles and options use materials that are close imitations of the original but manufactured by different companies. Nevertheless, what is it, who invented it, and how does it operate?
Even though it was only invented not too long ago in the United S Memory foam, in one form or another, has been around since the middle of the twentieth century; however, the first work on the polyurethane polymers that are a part of the memory foam recipe and which provide the unique melting sensation that memory foam offers was actually begun in 1937 by Otto Bayer and his colleagues.
In 1965, nurses at Lankenau Hospital in Wynnewood, Pennsylvania, tested polyurethane pads for use as bedding material and found that they prevented "decubitus ulcers," also called pressure ulcers or bed sores, sustained by patients who spend long periods of time in bed. and discovered that they are bacterium-proof and safe for allergy sufferers to use NASA began developing materials in the 1960s that would serve as better cushions and keep astronauts comfortable and protected from the extreme g-forces of launch.
Memory Foam vs. Most "bed in a box" mattresses are made of polyurethane foam, which is similar to what is found in traditional mattresses.
Polyurethane foam, from which memory foam is derived, has been produced since the mid-1950s by combining polyols with either water or halocarbons or hydrocarbons. The versatility of polyurethane lies in the chemicals it can take and the processes it can undergo, allowing it to take the form of anything from spray liner to car parts to, in this case, a globally renowned, extraordinarily comfortable mattress.
To make memory foam today, a compound called polyol is combined with a di-isocyanate and water. The foam develops a frothy, bread-like texture as it rises, and an open cell structure that aids in its unique, albeit sluggish, resilience when subjected to pressure. Air can move from cell to cell thanks to a matrix formed when bubbled gases are introduced into the initial solution; the size of the bubbles can be adjusted by adjusting the concentration of the chemicals and the amount of gas infused. More air can circulate through a material with a more open cell structure, and the material will be more pliable as a result.
IFD (Indention Force Deflection), also known as ILD (Indentation Load Deflection), is a unit of measurement for the firmness of memory foam and polyurethane foams. This measurement is the force in pounds required to make a 25% indentation in a 4 inch square of foam.
The density of the foam, which determines how firm or soft it is, is also an important factor in determining its "softness." Foam densities range from 1 to 7 pounds, but 4 pounds is considered minimum for use in mattress construction and 5 pounds is ideal. Especially at lower temperatures, a foam with a high density but low ILD may still feel firm when compressed. Softness, firmness, and durability of the foam are all controlled by the density, along with IFD/ILD and resilience.
Lower density foam will conform to pressure more easily than higher density foam (typically 5 lb or higher) forms to the shape of the body when heated After NASA made the memory foam design public in the 1980s, mass production finally got underway. Fagerdala World Foams started making this complicated product in full mattress sizes using specialized molds in 1991, and the result was the first "Tempur-Pedic Swedish Mattress." ”
There are now many manufacturers of viscoelastic memory foam all over the world, giving shoppers a wider selection and lower prices. There is a greater possibility of buying low-quality foams that will eventually degrade. Not all memory foam is made equally; in order to lower production costs, many overseas factories substitute cheaper, lower-quality, and potentially toxic "filler" ingredients.
tendencies in the mattress market
Mattress sales have been fairly stable recently. There were about 16 million mattress sales in the US in 1990. Mattresses and frames made up roughly $4 billion in annual sales. The mattress industry is dominated by a small number of large companies. Most of the roughly 825 mattress factories in the US are still run by their original families' third or fourth generations of management.
By 2020, the vast majority of mattresses will have been produced in standardized sizes. The industry pushed for this standardization to eliminate potential dimensional discrepancies between bed and mattress manufacturers. The dimensions for a twin bed are 39 by 74 inches, for a double bed they are 54 by 74, for a queen bed they are 60 by 80, and for a king bed they are 78 by 80 inches.
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